蘑菇滑雪是技巧上的曲速引擎,有如寇克船長的企業號進入超光速(warp speed)。滑雪進步可以無止境,技巧發展和進化是透過時間和同好們的交流切磋,逐漸發展出自己的語言。多年前在換跑道時,有前輩指點欲學好一樣新事物,須先把其知識體系的專有詞彙學起來;簡單來說就是內行人會說自家話。蘑菇滑雪這40年來一直在演變, 所以說永遠有新東西學。下面是我義譯的蘑菇滑雪技巧專有名詞*,如有不準確的翻譯,理解或其它定義,歡迎大家建議,感謝指正。

Basic Body Position for Mogul Skiing 基本蘑菇滑雪身體姿勢

Stack: Basic Body alignment with the hips and shoulders stacked over the downhill foot.

疊式立姿:基本上臀部和肩膀須在腳正上方連成一直線,與地面垂直。(有別於運動站姿athletic stance)

Lead Change: When the body is stacked properly over the downhill foot the uphill knee naturally advances forward. The leading knee changes as the weight shifts onto the new downhill ski.

先行切換當身體為疊式時, 體重支撐多在下坡外側板,上坡膝蓋自然在下坡膝蓋前方,

內側板的上坡膝蓋立名為先行*(lead)。開始轉方向時,上坡膝蓋將成為先行(lead)往彎的方向指向,體重支撐也隨著膝蓋先行的切換(change)轉移到即將的外側板(之前的內側板)。

 

*蘑菇基本上雙腿齊轉,由腳踝帶頭,但被鞋綁死所以腳踝啟動則連動到膝蓋。從外面看起來像似是膝蓋轉,但啟動是從腳開始。這裡說的由膝蓋(腳踝)帶頭因為膝蓋是保持微彎,那個角度就好像個箭頭,往哪裡指,就滑向那個方向。我的經驗是根據個人膝蓋大小腿長短,先行的上坡板頭超過下坡板頭約5~10公分。

Transitions: The weight shifts from downhill ski to the new downhill ski using lead change without up weighting and down weighting.

支撐交替:在沒有利用身體上下產生的壓力作用下,使用膝蓋的「先行切換」來交替體重支撐從目前的下坡板切換到上坡板(即將的下坡板)

*蘑菇滑行方向改變全是下盤膝蓋方向先行切換引導所致。

Knee Roll: As the weight shifts onto the new ski the knees roll into the angle of the new turn.

滾膝蓋:當重心逐漸移到外側板,膝蓋往新彎的方向角度指向。

 

Knee Angle: The ski is put on edge with knee angle not hip angle. This allows the knees to bend freely up and down.

膝刃角:板刃的角度為膝蓋小腿角度使成,非臀部大腿角度。

Weight Shift: The body should be in a non banked stance. The shoulders should always stay over the downhill ski

支撐轉移:(原文非定義,應解釋為此名詞注意事項)支撐轉移時,整體身形不應該成為傾斜。雙肩必須隨時保持在下坡板(外側板)正上方。

Shin Pressure: Shin pressure should be maintained at all times on the front of the boot.

 

脛骨壓舌:脛骨須對靴舌持續保持壓力。(有助於身體保持疊式站姿和快速啟動先行切換)

Non-Braced Stance: To increase sensitivity and free range of motion the body should not be bracing against it self in any way.

非防衝擊站姿:(拉開身長)增加身體四肢的敏感和自由度,避免任何方式造成折縮上下身。

*防衝擊姿勢:上身軀向下彎曲至大腿並以雙手抱頭

 

Center of Mass: The center of mass which is just below the belly button should always be projecting down the hill.

質心:身體的質量(重量)中心點位置,於肚臍下方(臍下丹田)。滑行時應該時時保持朝向坡下。

 

Parallel Shafts: The legs should create parallel shafts under the center of mass with the uphill ski and the down hill ski tracking together.

雙腿平行: 雙腿緊貼,平行合一地保持在質心下方。上下坡雪板滑行時同步伸縮扭轉。

Opposing Hip Drive: The uphill hip should drive down the fall line.

上盆驅動:位於上坡內側腿的臀部往滑行(雪坡垂直)下降線方向驅動。

 

Turn Placement: Turning happens on the top and backside of the moguls.

轉點位置:在包頂上和包面轉彎

Absorption and Extension  吸收和延伸*(又名伸縮)

*吸收和延伸屬於蘑菇主要技巧,利用髖臼關節,膝蓋關節,腳踝關節來改變身體高度以應過包時產生的衝擊

Foot Containment: As the knees bend and absorb the feet pull back underneath the center of mass to keep the body stacked properly.

控腳範圍:當膝蓋彎曲吸收包時,腳的位置會跑離原本在身體質心點正下方(肚臍三寸下方為身體質心點)。須要把腳拉回到質心點正下方來保持疊式立姿。 

 

Reverse Bicycle: The motion of foot containment is similar to pedaling a bike backwards

後踏單車:把腳拉回的控腳範圍技巧有如腳後踏單車。

 

Center of Mass Moving Through: When absorbing and extending the center of mass should always be moving down the fall line.

質心點續進: 在下身吸收和延伸時,身體的質心點須繼續往下降線方向前進 (不應該隨雪板和下半身改變方向)

Punch*: The tips of the skis should push powerfully down the backside of each mogul. The legs extend for the next mogul in an aligned position. 

踹擊吸收過包頂後,開始延伸時,板尖須朝下往包背下大力道踩。雙腿延伸須與身連成直線以糾正因吸收包時稍微變形的蹲姿,延伸是為下一個包的吸收做準備。

*這個名詞發明人為前美國國家隊,奧運代表隊蘑菇長老級前輩Chuck Martin。 根據我向美國國家隊教練的考證,現在用的同義詞是extension and tip drive。

 *我知道的另一定義: 在包頂上,內彎手肘,稍微使力地往包背下用杖尖“擊”(快速插下馬上拉回)雪,來引導上身向前向下轉下一個彎。

 

Release: The body should be in stacked position when the skis make contact with the face of the mogul so that tension can be released in the legs allowing the knees to absorb the mogul.

放鬆腿肌:當滑行雪板開始進入前包翹面(包面)部分時,身體須維持疊式立姿,放鬆腿部肌肉讓膝蓋關節彎曲來吸收過包的衝擊。

Touch: If the body is aligned properly the impact will be very light on the face of the mogul, because the knees will be able to absorb the impact.

飄包:如果身體為正確的疊式立姿,包面的衝擊會非常輕因為膝蓋會吸收衝擊,如落葉隨風飄過山丘。

Tip Touch: The releasing, absorption process should happen the second the tips make contact with the mogul.

板頭飄包:板頭一旦觸雪後(指的是在過前一個包後,後踏單車讓腳拉回,使得板頭朝下的最後過程在進入下一個包面時),同時放鬆腿肌和開始讓膝蓋彎曲吸收。(這裡講的是動作在時機timing點抓的到位)

Hip Clearing: The hips and center of mass should always clear the top of the mogul as the tips of the skis punch down the backside of the mogul.

臀部出清:一旦雪板過包後板頭「踹擊」包背,臀部和質心點應該也同時離開包頂。(避免上身還留在包頂,但下身已經過包頂,身體失去疊式立姿)

Hip Projection: The hips and center of mass should always be projecting down the fall line.

臀部投射:臀部和質心點應該總是往下降線的方向投射。

Passive Active: Ryan Riley is more of a passive style skier. He maintains a good body position and looks very relaxed. Shupletsov was more of an active skier who was able ski with a lot of knee angle and absorption. Shupletsov appeared to actively pull his feet underneath his center of mass.

被動和主動風格:被動是保持身體放鬆,讓包把腳和腿壓縮達到吸收衝擊的作用。主動是過包時主動吸收和拉回腳來躲包,速度快時採取的攻勢技巧。

Anticipation: Setting up the body into a stacked position early in the extension process so that the legs are able to release the second the tip makes contact with the mogul.

疊式還原:過了包頂後,在經過包背這段時間,儘快挺腰延伸雙腿,提前在下一個包來臨前讓身體還原到正確的疊式立姿。

Pre Jumping: Prejumping the face of the mogul pumping with heavy contact on the backside. This is a technique to gain speed in the moguls.

跳前壓:在包面上跳躍前,須紮實踩著滑過前一個包背上以增加速度。

 

Effective Range: The range of motion used when the knees move up and down. The range can be adjusted according to the size of the moguls and the pitch of the terrain.

有效範圍:膝蓋上下的最大落差距離。膝蓋的有效範圍因配合蘑菇包的大小和坡斜。

Air: 空中技巧

Approach: Spot the jump early, control speed three bumps early, the last two moguls before the air are key for setting up balance.

接近: 騰跳前的三個蘑菇包,最少兩個,就要做好速度控制和確認從那一個蘑菇包上跳出。

Vision: A loose focus should be kept on the jump on the approach and a loose focus should be on the landing and the next three moguls after the take off.

視野: 隱約的視野注意力集中在接近跳包,落地,和起跳騰空後的下三個包。

 

4 Point Take Off: Both poles should touch lightly on top of the jump on take off. This helps square the body to the fall line.

四點起跳:當起跳離地的那一刻,雙杖需輕點雪,形成雙板雙杖同時在雪上(4點)。這會幫助身體正面對向下降線。

Bink: A light 4 point take off on the jump so that the hands do not fall behind the center of mass.

同前:四點起跳

Take off Extension: The legs should be fully extended on top of the jump.

起跳伸展:當起跳離地的那一刻,雙腿須完全伸直。

 

Shin Pressure: When approaching the transition of the jump the shins should be pressing into the boots with the center of mass stacked over the ball of the foot.

脛壓:當從最後的一個蘑菇包接近到跳躍的包或平台的這段交替時間,脛須使力前壓鞋舌;身體質心(重心)堆疊在腳前掌。

Hips Up: During the take off extension the hips should come all the way up into a symmetrical position.

提高臀部: 當起跳離地的那一刻,臀部須完全向上提升形成對稱的姿勢。

Symmetry: When executing the tricks in the air the body should stay in a symmetrical position with the shoulders “T’d” off with the rest of the body.

對稱:當在空中做任何動作時,雙肩須和身體保持T型對稱。

Spotting: When approaching the top of the jump the eyes should spot forward over the jump with a loose focus.

目尋點:當接近到跳台時,眼須往前隱約的注目。

Timing; The take off extension should be timed to give the maximum lift off the top of the jump.

時機:身體,雙腿,臀部的伸展的時機點應該成就最大起跳離地力。

Relaxing into the Center: When landing in the moguls it is important to relax into the center of mass.

鬆入質心:降落在包時,身體應該輕鬆的隨著質心下降方向和位置。

Big Air Projection: When executing the take off extension concentrate on projecting the body up into the air.

投身向上: 當起跳離地,專注把身體投射向上空(向上跳)。

 

Upper Body and Vision: 上身和視野

Arm box: The arms should form a box in front of the body with the hands in line with the elbows

方正手臂:手臂和手肘成90度,手肘靠近身體,手臂和上身成垂直延伸。

Square Shoulders: The shoulders should square up to the fall line.

正方肩膀:雙肩平行面向下降線。

Down Hill Shoulder Drive: The shoulder over the downhill ski should be driving down onto the downhill ski.

下肩驅動:與下坡板同一邊的肩膀須朝下坡板方向驅動。

 

Back Side Pole Plants: The basket of the pole should reach for the downhill side of the mogul in front of you.

杖點包背: 點杖時須盡量往面向下坡的包背,而非包頂。

Pulling Down the Hill: The pole swing should be early. It is a sensation of being pulled down the fall line with the pole plants.

拉杖下山:點杖搖擺的感覺好比杖往下降坡的方向被拉下。

Suppression: Pulling down with the shoulders. Settling into the center of mass.

 

擠壓:肩膀上身向質心點擠壓。

Soft Focus: Focusing down the fall line with out spot fixation.

隱約注目:眼睛向下降線的方向隱約注視,但不聚焦鎖定在某一特點上。

Spot Fixation: Looking at one spot in a mogul line and loosing the flow of motion.

目焦定點:當目焦只聚集在蘑菇下降線固定的一點所造失去成整體滑行的流暢性。

Look 3 Moguls Ahead: Refer to Look 3 Moguls Ahead.

顧前三包:滑行蘑菇時,眼顧前面三個包。

Opposite Hand Drive: The hand that is not planting should be driving down the fall line.

反手先驅:不點杖的手領身向下坡驅動。

Light Pole Plants: Pole plants should be used as a timing device. They should not be used for balance.

輕點杖: 點杖是用來輔助時機節奏,不是為了滑行中保持平衡。

Relaxation: The upper body should be relaxed.

上身放鬆:上半身應該放輕鬆

Grip: Pole straps should be wrapped around the hand. The grip on the pole should be light using the wrist to swing the basket of the pole forward.

抓杖: 杖帶須戴上。抓杖力道應輕,利用手腕來搖擺雪杖來點杖。

Athletic Skiing 運動員級別滑雪 

Flowing Focus: The mental focus in a competition run that enables the mind and body to flow while skiing down the run.

專注:在比賽時,精神專注在跑道可以讓身心流暢的滑下。

Non-Thinking: Letting thoughts go during a competition run so that the body can ski.

無念: 當開始比賽時,放下所有的念頭,讓身體滑雪而不受思想的干擾。

Top to Bottom Focus: Visualizing a run from top to bottom with air. Focusing through mistakes.

從頭到底專注: 在腦海中視覺化從頭到底含空中跳躍的滑行路線。就算中途失誤,也繼續專注

連貫的完成滑行。

Skiing Through Mistakes: Skiing through mistakes in training so those mistakes do not paralyze the focus during competition runs.

失誤中繼續完成滑行:訓練時練習在失誤中快速恢復專注和繼續滑行而不讓失誤癱瘓比賽。

Paralysis by Analysis: Focusing on one point during a run and losing the flow.

分析癱瘓症: 專注於滑道上的某一點導致比賽滑行失去了流暢性。

Self-Talk Key Words: Use one key word to keep the focus flowing.

自我勸說:利用關鍵字自我勸說來保持專注的流暢滑行。

Visualization: Learn to visualize competition runs from top to bottom. This can take some practice.

腦海中視覺化:在腦海中想像自己從頭到尾在賽道上的滑行。 需要練習把滑行中起承轉合的細節完全視覺化 (有助於實際比賽滑行時的預期)。

Trust Your Stuff: Trust yourself to let go of your thoughts when you are in the competition gate. The thinking is done during training.

信任自己:信任自己在比賽時拋開所有的念頭。只有在練習的時候才思考。

Speed Relaxation: The key to going fast is to breathe and relax into the center of mass.

欲速欲鬆: 想要滑的快的關鍵是腹式呼吸和身體往丹田中心放鬆。

 

 資料來源:Mogul Logic

*本篇收錄的專有名詞摘自於美國蘑菇老將兼教練Chuck Martin的蘑菇營網站。 名詞未必有共通性,原文定義和解釋可能因人因時因組織單位而不同,本人在此僅為傳播知識,如有更好更新的名詞,解釋,定義,新知歡迎同好們互相分享。

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